Research is a systematic study or investigation of sources and materials to be able to reach a conclusion. We say it is systematic because there is an order in the way things are done. First, when you do research, you collect related data. Then, you present these data that you gathered and analyze if there are connections and relationships among them. From that analysis, you derive your conclusions and recommendations. This is the most important part of research because something useful comes out of the study that could benefit the society.
There are different kinds of research. There is the exploratory research, descriptive, quantitative research, qualitative, and applied research. Each kind of research is designed for a specific purpose. A research also uses different methodologies and tools to be able to come up with relevant data for the study. Scientific research is often concerned with manipulating variables to see the different effects in a particular setting. This is more of an exact science as the conditions are really regulated to eradicate any unrelated factor that may affect the outcome of the study. Research in the social sciences is less restrictive when it comes to controlling variables. They are more qualitative and descriptive in nature. This is based on the assumption that human behavior cannot be quantified. That is why social researchers explain and illustrate different human behaviors to be able to show the effects or result of a particular condition.
Scientific and social research both aim to show us the relationship between different factors and how this relationship can affect results or human behavior. They prove or disprove existing theories. Research is also done in conducting new product development to answer the needs of the people. Lastly, research helps us in policy analysis and decision making so that we can make an informed choice that would benefit other people.