Homeland security deals with national concerns regarding the different dangers and threats that our nation faces and ensuring the safety of each and every American citizen.  Through the years, different administrations have passed or amended existing legislation relating to homeland security to strengthen our national defense. 

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 stipulates procedures for different modes of surveillance being done to gather foreign intelligence information. The investigation can be done electronically or through the use of pen registers, trap and trace devices, business records, or actual physical searches.  This is where nanotechnology becomes vital as it allows the military to conduct surveillance through the use of non-obstructive devices. The said legislation also led to the creation of the US Foreign Intelligence Service Court, which is a special court that issues search warrants for foreign intelligence surveillance operations.


However, law enforcers need to establish that there is probable cause that the person or persons of interest are considered a foreign power or agent of a foreign power.  Surveillance can be done on an individual or group of foreigners believed to be involved in international terrorist activities. Some proponents of human rights question the legality of using nanotechnology in such operations. They demand that there be a separate regulatory commission that would oversee the safe and ethical use of nanotechnology in different fields, especially in military science. Implementation of this law will help us enhance our domestic security as well as give importance to human rights.  The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 intends to use all means to gather foreign intelligence reports that can provide leads on terrorist activities. In keeping our country safe, the government and law enforcers have to be two or three steps ahead of the terrorist groups.  They need all the tools and information that they can get to be able to strategize in neutralizing terrorism. However, some groups demand that the government do so in the most humane way possible to remove any ethical issues involved.